Human urine is normally saturated with calcium oxalate, but this compound usually remains in solution due to pH control and counterbalancing nutrients. If these protective factors are overwhelmed, then calcium oxalate crystallizes to form stones. The high rate of kidney stones in affluent societies is directly associated with dietary patterns of insufficient water and fibre intake plus excess animal protein, fat, sodium, sugar, caffeine, and alcohol.
Magnesium and vitamin B-6 are co-partners that increase the solubility of calcium oxalate, thus preventing the formation of kidney stones. Contrary to popular myth, vitamin C has never been documented to cause kidney stones; and some clinics use vitamin C as part of their therapy to help dissolve kidney stones. Cranberry juice (preferably unsweetened) acts as a urinary antiseptic and also helps to prevent the formation of kidney stones.
The following measures can significantly reduce the risk of stone formation: (1) drink at least 2.5 litres of purified water daily. (2) Eat more vegetables and whole grains. (3) Avoid sugar, caffeine, and alcohol. (4) Drink unsweetened cranberry juice regularly. (5) Make sure that daily supplements provide at least 400 mg. of magnesium and 10 mg. of vitamin B-6.